Primary Sources

I will be using the APA format for my annotated bibliography because my research topic is in the social sciences.

Primary Sources:

Quevedo, L. A., Silva, R. A., Godoy, R. R., Jansen, K. K., Matos, M. B., Tavares Pinheiro, K. A., & Pinheiro, R. T. (2012). The impact of maternal post-partum depression on the language development of children at 12 months. Child: Care, Health & Development38(3), 420-424.

This is a study published on the effect of post-partum depression on children done on mothers treated by the Brazilian National System of Public Health.  The studies first tested mothers and their children a month after delivery and then a year after.  This study focused on the effect post-partum depression had on the linguistic abilities of the children, and found a negative effect, which was worsened the longer the post-partum existed.  This study is useful for my research because it shows the effect post-partum depression has specifically on a child’s linguistic ability, which is a relatively short term effect after the initial post-partum depression. 

Denis, A. A., Ponsin, M. M., & Callahan, S. S. (2012). The relationship between maternal self-esteem, maternal competence, infant temperament and post-partum blues. Journal Of Reproductive & Infant Psychology30(4), 388-397.

In this study, mothers completed surveys concerning depression levels from pregnancy to three years after birth  Their depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.  The mothers’ children then took an IQ test at eight years of age.  The findings pointed that there was no significant correlation between a mother’s post-partum depression and a child’s cognitive ability.  This study is useful for my project because it shows the long-term outcome of post-partum depression and how it didn’t effect children in this aspect of measurement (IQ testing).

Murray, L., Arteche, A., Fearon, P., Halligan, S., Croudace, T., & Cooper, P. (2010). The effects of maternal postnatal depression and child sex on academic performance at age 16 years: a developmental approach. Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry51(10), 1150-1159.

This study tested children who were sixteen years old that had mothers with post-natal (aka post-partum) depression.  They tested the children using a variety of things, including the “General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exam performance of maternal depression (postnatal and subsequent) and IQ, child sex and earlier cognitive development, and mother-child interactions, using structural equation modelling (SEM).”  The study showed that male children were affected by post-partum depression during early cognitive development, and these effects continued throughout the years.  This study contributes to my research by showing some relationship between post-partum depression and children, measured in a variety of aspects.  The specificity of gender (only males affected) is also an important note.

Deave, T. T., Heron, J. J., Evans, J. J., & Emond, A. A. (2008). The impact of maternal depression in pregnancy on early child development. BJOG: An International Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology115(8), 1043-1051.

This study surveyed mothers about their depression at 18 and 32 weeks of gestation and at 8 weeks and 8 months postnatally using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.  When the child was 18 months, the mothers filled out another survey concerning their child’s development.  The findings of this study show that children were developmentally delayed because of post-partum depression, but also that depression throughout the pregnancy contributed to the developmental delay as well.  This study is important to my research because it also includes results and links to children being affected by depression during pregnancy, as well as after.


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